Beliefs and Mental Health
Religieus geloof wordt hier als voorbeeld gegeven voor
iets dat sterk aanwezig is in de Amerikaanse bevolking.
Andere vormen van geloof, echter, kunnen ook dienen
als voorbeelden waarbij de kracht van het geloof een
effekt heeft op de gezondheidsuitkomsten. In Mind Body
Medicine zal het ondersteunen van een gezond geloofssysteem
kracht geven aan het zelfzorgproces.
I. Geloof en welzijn
Er is aangetoond dat geloof mentale gezondheid be´nvloedt,
door het voorkomen en verminderen van psychologische
a. Reducing Stress and Preventing Depression.
Koenig, H.G., Cohen, HJ., Blazer, D.G., Pieper, C.,
& Meador, K.G., Shelp, F., Goli, V ., & DiPasquale,
R. (1992). Religious coping and depression in elderly
hospitalized medically ill men. American Journal of
Psychiatry, 149, 1693-1100.
In a consecutive sample
of 850 elderly men acutely admitted to the hospital,
investigators found that patients who used prayer and
religious belief to help them cope were significantly
less depressed; among a subgroup of 201 subjects, extent
of prayer and belief predicted lower depression scores
6 months later. There are over 100 other studies showing
that those who are more religiously active experience
lower rates of depression, commit suicide less often,
and have greater well-being (Koenig et al 2000).
b. Speeding Recovery from Depression
or Adaptation to Stress.
Koenig, HG, George L.K, Peterson BL (1998). Religiosity
and remission from depression in medically ill older
patients. American Journal of Psychiatry,155,536-542.
One year prospective study of 87 medical inpatients
with depressive disorder to determine predictors of
be to remission. Twenty-eight physical health, mental
health, social, and treatment factors were examined.
Investigators found that depressed patients who had
strong intrinsic religious belief recovered over 10%
faster from depression than did those with weaker religious
commitment. In a subgroup of patients whose physical
illness was not improving (not responding to medical
treatments), intrinsically religious patients recovered
over 100% faster. Other investigators have reported
similar findings in children (Miller et al 1997) and
elderly persons in Europe (Braam et al 1991).
Propst, L.R., Ostrom, R., Watkins, P ., Dean, T .,
& Mashburn, D. (1992). Comparative efficacy of religious
and nonreligious cognitive-behavior therapy for the
treatment of clinical depression in religious individuals.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 94-103.
Examined the effectiveness of using religion-based psychotherapy
in the treatment of 59 depressed religious patients.
The religious therapy involved use of religious beliefs
to counter irrational thoughts associated with depression.
Religious belief therapy resulted in significantly faster
recovery from depression compared to standard secular
cognitive-behavioral therapy. What was surprising was
that the benefits from religious-based therapy were
most evident among patients who received religious therapy
from non-religious therapists.
Rabins, P. V ., Fitting, M.D., Eastham, J., &
Zabora, J. (1990). Emotional adaptation over time in
caregivers for chronically ill elderly people. Age and
Ageing, 19, 185-190.
Followed 62 caregivers of persons
with either Alzheimer's disease or recurrent metastatic
cancer, examining factors that predicted adaptation
two years later . Strong religious belief (p < ,0001)
and frequent social contacts were the two major predictors
of adaptation in this group.
c. Preventing Substance Abuse.
Cochran, J.K., Beeghley, L., & Bock, E.W. (1988)
Religiosity and alcohol behavior: an exploration of
reference group therapy. Sociological Forum, 3, 256-276.
These investigators used survey data from General Social
Surveys conducted between 1912-1984. During this time,
7,581 adults ages 18 or older were surveyed. Results
indicated that four measures of religiousness (attendance
at services, belief in life after death, strength of
religious belief, and religious group memberships) were
all inversely related to alcohol use or misuse, after
controlling for age, race, sex, urbanity, region, education,
income, & prestige. This study involved a large
random national sample of Americans of all ages.
Amey, C.H., Albrecht, S.L., &.Miller, M. K. (1996).
Racial differences in adolescent drug use: The impact
of religion. Substance Use and Misuse, 31, 1311-1332.
These investigators surveyed a random sample of 11.728
senior high school students. The dependent variable
was substance use (LSD, cocaine, amphetamines Barbiturates,
tranquilizers, heroin, other narcotics, and inhalants).
Religious involvement was inversely related with all
substances. Frequent church attendance was associated
with 29% less cigarette smoking. 45% less alcohol use,
33% less marijuana use, 21% less other drug use. Importance
of religious beliefs was associated with 25% less cigarette
smoking, 55% less alcohol use, 22% less marijuana use,
and 12% less other drug use.
d. Explanatory Style.
Optimism-pessimism assessed in the 1960s and self-reported
health status 30 years later.
Authors Maruta T. Colligan RC. Malinchoc M. Offord KP.
Institution Department of Psychiatry and Psychology,
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn 55905, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Source Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 77(8):748-53, 2002 Aug.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To study the association between
explanatory style, using scores from the Optimism-Pessimism
(PSM) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI), and self-reported health status, using
scores from the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 447 patients who completed
the MMPI between 1962 and 1965 as self-referred general
medical outpatients and also completed the SF-36 thirty
years later compose the current study sample. The associations
between the scores on the SF-36 and the MMPI PSM scale
were evaluated by analysis of variance and linear regression
analysis. RESULTS: Of 447 patients, 101 were classified
as optimistic, 272 as mixed, and 74 as pessimistic.
Scores on all 8 health concept domains from the SF-36
were significantly poorer in the pessimistic group than
in both the optimistic and the mixed group. CONCLUSION:
A pessimistic explanatory style, reflected by higher
PSM scale scores, was significantly associated with
a self-report of poorer physical and mental functioning
on the SF-36 30 years later.