Mind Body Medicine
Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
V Beliefs and Mental Health

Religieus geloof wordt hier als voorbeeld gegeven voor iets dat sterk aanwezig is in de Amerikaanse bevolking. Andere vormen van geloof, echter, kunnen ook dienen als voorbeelden waarbij de kracht van het geloof een effekt heeft op de gezondheidsuitkomsten. In Mind Body Medicine zal het ondersteunen van een gezond geloofssysteem kracht geven aan het zelfzorgproces.

I. Geloof en welzijn

Er is aangetoond dat geloof mentale gezondheid be´nvloedt, door het voorkomen en verminderen van psychologische stress.

a. Reducing Stress and Preventing Depression.

Koenig, H.G., Cohen, HJ., Blazer, D.G., Pieper, C., & Meador, K.G., Shelp, F., Goli, V ., & DiPasquale, R. (1992). Religious coping and depression in elderly hospitalized medically ill men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1693-1100. In a consecutive sample of 850 elderly men acutely admitted to the hospital, investigators found that patients who used prayer and religious belief to help them cope were significantly less depressed; among a subgroup of 201 subjects, extent of prayer and belief predicted lower depression scores 6 months later. There are over 100 other studies showing that those who are more religiously active experience lower rates of depression, commit suicide less often, and have greater well-being (Koenig et al 2000).

b. Speeding Recovery from Depression or Adaptation to Stress.

Koenig, HG, George L.K, Peterson BL (1998). Religiosity and remission from depression in medically ill older patients. American Journal of Psychiatry,155,536-542. One year prospective study of 87 medical inpatients with depressive disorder to determine predictors of be to remission. Twenty-eight physical health, mental health, social, and treatment factors were examined. Investigators found that depressed patients who had strong intrinsic religious belief recovered over 10% faster from depression than did those with weaker religious commitment. In a subgroup of patients whose physical illness was not improving (not responding to medical treatments), intrinsically religious patients recovered over 100% faster. Other investigators have reported similar findings in children (Miller et al 1997) and elderly persons in Europe (Braam et al 1991).

Propst, L.R., Ostrom, R., Watkins, P ., Dean, T ., & Mashburn, D. (1992). Comparative efficacy of religious and nonreligious cognitive-behavior therapy for the treatment of clinical depression in religious individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 94-103. Examined the effectiveness of using religion-based psychotherapy in the treatment of 59 depressed religious patients. The religious therapy involved use of religious beliefs to counter irrational thoughts associated with depression. Religious belief therapy resulted in significantly faster recovery from depression compared to standard secular cognitive-behavioral therapy. What was surprising was that the benefits from religious-based therapy were most evident among patients who received religious therapy from non-religious therapists.

Rabins, P. V ., Fitting, M.D., Eastham, J., & Zabora, J. (1990). Emotional adaptation over time in caregivers for chronically ill elderly people. Age and Ageing, 19, 185-190. Followed 62 caregivers of persons with either Alzheimer's disease or recurrent metastatic cancer, examining factors that predicted adaptation two years later . Strong religious belief (p < ,0001) and frequent social contacts were the two major predictors of adaptation in this group.

c. Preventing Substance Abuse.

Cochran, J.K., Beeghley, L., & Bock, E.W. (1988) Religiosity and alcohol behavior: an exploration of reference group therapy. Sociological Forum, 3, 256-276. These investigators used survey data from General Social Surveys conducted between 1912-1984. During this time, 7,581 adults ages 18 or older were surveyed. Results indicated that four measures of religiousness (attendance at services, belief in life after death, strength of religious belief, and religious group memberships) were all inversely related to alcohol use or misuse, after controlling for age, race, sex, urbanity, region, education, income, & prestige. This study involved a large random national sample of Americans of all ages.

Amey, C.H., Albrecht, S.L., &.Miller, M. K. (1996). Racial differences in adolescent drug use: The impact of religion. Substance Use and Misuse, 31, 1311-1332. These investigators surveyed a random sample of 11.728 senior high school students. The dependent variable was substance use (LSD, cocaine, amphetamines Barbiturates, tranquilizers, heroin, other narcotics, and inhalants). Religious involvement was inversely related with all substances. Frequent church attendance was associated with 29% less cigarette smoking. 45% less alcohol use, 33% less marijuana use, 21% less other drug use. Importance of religious beliefs was associated with 25% less cigarette smoking, 55% less alcohol use, 22% less marijuana use, and 12% less other drug use.

d. Explanatory Style.

Optimism-pessimism assessed in the 1960s and self-reported health status 30 years later.
Authors Maruta T. Colligan RC. Malinchoc M. Offord KP.
Institution Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn 55905, USA. maruta.toshihiko@mayo.edu
Source Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 77(8):748-53, 2002 Aug.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To study the association between explanatory style, using scores from the Optimism-Pessimism (PSM) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), and self-reported health status, using scores from the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 447 patients who completed the MMPI between 1962 and 1965 as self-referred general medical outpatients and also completed the SF-36 thirty years later compose the current study sample. The associations between the scores on the SF-36 and the MMPI PSM scale were evaluated by analysis of variance and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 447 patients, 101 were classified as optimistic, 272 as mixed, and 74 as pessimistic. Scores on all 8 health concept domains from the SF-36 were significantly poorer in the pessimistic group than in both the optimistic and the mixed group. CONCLUSION: A pessimistic explanatory style, reflected by higher PSM scale scores, was significantly associated with a self-report of poorer physical and mental functioning on the SF-36 30 years later.