Mind Body Medicine
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XXI Spirituality

1. Dossey, L. (1999). Do Religion And Spirituality Matter In Health? A Response To The Recent Article In The Lancet. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 5(3),6-8.
This article is a rebuttal of the points in the review article by Sloan et. al. in Lancet cited below.

2. Lukoff, D., Provenzano, R., Lu, F, & Turner, R. (1999). Religious and Spiritual Case Reports on MEDLINE: A Systematic Analysis of Records from 1980 to 1996. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 5(1), 64 70.
A systematic analysis of MEDLINE records published between 1980 and 1996 involving religious or spiritual issues was performed in this study. Categories were developed for (1 )types of health-care situations involving religious/spiritual issues, (2) religious and spiritual interventions, (3) collaboration between healthcare and religious professionals, (4) psychopathology and sensitivity themes, and (5) religious faith/spiritual path. The largest category of case reports involved psychiatric diagnosis (32%). Only 12% of an case reports explicitly mentioned a religious professional and, of these, only 2% indicated any collaboration between healthcare and religious professionals. The authors conclude that there is a paucity of published case report literature on religious and spiritual issues indicating that the increasing acceptance of these factors by patients and healthcare professionals is not yet reflected in scientific and clinical journals.

3. Mytko, J.J., & Knight, S. J. (1999), Body, Mind, and Spirit: Towards the Integration of Religiosity and Spirituality in Cancer Quality of Life Research. Psycho-Oncology 8 (5), 439-450.
This paper reviews the literature relating religion and spirituality to physical and emotional health and quality of life. The authors provide a comprehensive review and analysis of ten different commonly used spirituality scales. The relationship between religion, spirituality, and health is presented as well as religiosity, spirituality, and quality of life outcomes in cancer care. The authors conclude that regular inclusion of religiosity and spirituality measures in quality of life studies is needed in order to understand the integration of mind, body, and spirit in cancer care.

4. Sloan, R.P., Bagiella, E., Powell, T. (1999) Religion, spirituality, and medicine. Lancet, 353 {9153),664-667.
The authors note the growing interest the notion of linking religious and medical interventions. By reviewing the empirical evidence and ethical issues they examine how medicine should address this issue. Methodological issues that pertain to physical disease outcomes in studies on religion and medicine include problems in controlling for confounding variables and other covariates, failure to control for multiple comparisons, and conflicting findings. The authors conclude that "Even in the best studies, the evidence of an association between religion, spirituality, and health is weak and inconsistent. We believe therefore that it is premature to promote faith and religion as adjuntive medical treatments;" The main points of this paper and the conclusion is addressed by Dr. Dossey in an article published in Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine cited above.