1. Fried, R. (1990). Integrating Music in Breathing
Training and Relaxation: I. Background, Rationale, and
Relevant Elements. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation,
This paper discusses the different types of music and
their effects on various states of consciousness and
2. Fried, R. (1990). Integrating Music in Breathing
Training and Relaxation: II. Applications. Biofeedback
and Self-Regulation, 15(2), 171 ~ 177.
This paper gives an illustrative example of the use
of music in breathing and relaxation exercises. The
physiological effects are demonstrated by measuring
expired carbon dioxide and brain wave functions.
3. Good, M. Effects on relaxation and music on postoperative
pain: a review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 24(5):905-14,
4. Koch ME. Kain ZN. Ayoub C. Rosenbaum SH. The sedative
and analgesic sparing effect of music. Anesthesiology.
89(2):300-6, 1998 Aug.
5. Rider, M.S. (1987). Treating Chronic Disease and
Pain with Music-Mediated Imagery. The Arts in Psychotherapy,
This article describes a technique utilizing improvised
music and imagery in the management of chronic pain
and disease. The patients described in the three case
studies were seen in group music therapy sessions as
part of an outpatient private practice. The music was
carefully produces to both reflect and guide natural
images toward mental healing states. Research documenting
physiological responses concomitant to and congruent
with healing imagery are also discussed.
6. Rider, M.S. & Achterberg, J. (1989). Effect of
Music-Assisted Imagery on Neutrophils and Lymphocytes.
Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 14(3),247-257.
The purpose of the study as to determine the effects
of cell-specific mental imagery on neutrophil and lymphocyte
cell counts. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned
to one of two experimental groups that underwent a 6-week
training program focusing on images of morphology, location
and movement of either neutrophils or lymphocytes. Music
was used to enhance the imagery of the subjects. Peripheral
white blood cell and differential counts were determined
before and after the final imagery session. Results
indicated that neutrophils decreased significantly in
the neutrophil-change group while lymphocytes did not.
The reverse occurred in the Iymphocyte~change group
with only the lymphocytes decreasing significantly.
These results provide tentative support for the notion
that metal processes, such as those associated with
biological images, may have specific effects on subpopulations
of the immune system.
7. Weber, S Volkmar, N. Wilmmanns, Wolfgang, W. A
pilot study on the influence of receptive music listening
on cancer patients during chemotherapy. International
Journal of Arts Medicine. 5(2):27-35,1997.