Mind Body Medicine
Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
XVIII (self)Hypnosis

A review of the impact of hypnosis, relaxation, guided imagery and individual differences on aspects of immunity and health. Authors Gruzelier JH.
Source Stress. 5(2):147-63, 2002 June.
Abstract This review considers psychological interventions involving relaxation and guided imagery targeting immune functions. The review provides evidence of immune control accompanied by reports of enhanced mood and well-being. Three recent investigations of the author and his colleagues with self-hypnosis training incorporating imagery of the immune system are outlined. In two studies, hypnosis buffered the effects of stress on immune functions in medical students at exam time, and the comparison of self-hypnosis with and without immune imagery confirmed advantages to targeted imagery for both immune function and mood, and importantly, fewer winter viral infections. The implications for health were investigated in a third study in patients with virulent and chronic herpes simplex virus-2 HSV-2). Six weeks of training almost halved recurrence, improved mood and reduced levels of clinical depression and anxiety. Immune functions were up-regulated, notably functional natural killer cell activity to HSV-1. Individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility and absorption have typically been found to predict efficacy. New replicable evidence is reviewed of the importance of cognitive activation, a personality difference whose neurophysiological underpinning is consistent with left hemispheric preferential influences over the immune system. Now that the validation of psychological interventions includes advantages for health, this field of enquiry, which has been characterised by modest, small scale, largely preliminary studies, warrants a greater investment in research.

Treatment of chronic fatigue with neurofeedback and self-hypnosis. Authors Hammond DC.
Institution Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. D.C.Hammond@m.cc.utah.edu Source Neurorehabilitation. 16(4):295-300, 2001.
Abstract A 21 year old patient reported a relatively rapid onset of serious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with her worst symptoms being cognitive impairments. Congruent with research on rapid onset CFS, she had no psychiatric history and specialized testing did not suggest that somatization was likely. Neuroimaging and EEG research has documented brain dysfunction in cases of CFS. Therefore, a quantitative EEG was done, comparing her to a normative data base. This revealed excessive left frontal theta brainwave activity in an area previously implicated in SPECT research. Therefore, a novel treatment approach was utilized consisting of a combination of EEG neurofeedback and self-hypnosis training, both of which seemed very beneficial. She experienced considerable improvement in fatigue, vigor, and confusion as measured pre-post with the Profile of Mood States and through collaborative interviews with both parents. Most of the changes were maintained at 5, 7, and 9 month follow-up testing.

Self-hypnotic relaxation during interventional radiological procedures: effects on pain perception and intravenous drug use. Authors Lang EV. Joyce JS. Spiegel D. Hamilton D. Lee KK.
Institution Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC), Palo Alto, California, USA.
Source International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis. 44(2):106-19, 1996 Apr.
Abstract The authors evaluated whether self-hypnotic relaxation can reduce the need for intravenous conscious sedation during interventional radiological procedures. Sixteen patients were randomized to a test group, and 14 patients were randomized to a control group. All had patient-controlled analgesia. Test patients additionally had self-hypnotic relaxation and underwent a Hypnotic Induction Profile test. Compared to controls, test patients used less drugs (0.28 vs. 2.01 drug units; p < .01) and reported less pain (median pain rating 2 vs. 5 on a 0-10 scale; p < .01). Significantly more control patients exhibited oxygen desaturation and/or needed interruptions of their procedures for hemodynamic instability. Benefit did not correlate with hypnotizability. Self-hypnotic relaxation can reduce drug use and improve procedural safety.

Rapid self-hypnosis: a new self-hypnosis method and its comparison with the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP).  Authors Martinez-Tendero J. Capafons A. Weber V. Cardena E.
Institution Universitat de Valencia.
Source American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 44(1):3-11, 2001 Jul.
Abstract Despite its clinical importance, there are few systematic studies on the application of self-hypnosis. Rapid Self-Hypnosis (RSH) was created to provide a new procedure that is easy, comfortable, fosters alertness, and can be done covertly in everyday life. We present it as an alternative to the self-hypnosis version of the Hypnosis Induction Profile (HIP). Using a crossover design, we found in an experimental session that the RSH and the HIP produced comparable objective and subjective scores in the Barber Suggestibility Scale (BSS). However, as compared with the HIP, participants rated RSH as significantly more coherent, pleasant, faster and easier to learn, more likely to be used in everyday life and go unnoticed by others, less bothersome to use, and more likely to be used in private. Additional research should clarify whether these differences are reliable and have clinical significance. Our results suggest that RSH will be a valuable addition to the clinician's arsenal.

The efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of pruritus in people with HIV/AIDS: a time-series analysis. Authors Rucklidge JJ. Saunders D.
Institution The Toronto Hospital, Canada. j.rucklidge@psyc.canterbury.ac.nz
Source International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis. 50(2):149-69, 2002 Apr.
Abstract Pruritus, or generalized itch, is a source of serious discomfort and distress in a significant minority of people living with AIDS. Anecdotal reports suggest hypnosis might be a useful treatment, leading to reductions in distress and improvements in the condition. But empirical examination of the question is notably lacking. This time-series study reports results of a 6-session self-hypnosis treatment (relaxation, deepening, imagery, and home practice) for 3 HIV-positive men suffering from pruritus, related to disease progression and/or HIV medications. Posttreatment, all 3 patients reported significant reductions in daily itch severity and extent of sleep disturbance due to itch. One patient also evidenced significantly less itch distress. Another also experienced significantly less time bothered by itch. For the 2 patients on which 4-month follow-up data were available, treatment benefit across variables was stable or further improved.