1. DeGuire, S., Gevirtz, R., Hawkinson, D., & Dixon,
K. (1996). Breathing Retraining: A Three Year Follow-up
Study of Treatment for Hyperventilation Syndrome and
Associated Functional Cardiac Symptoms. Biofeedback
and Self-Regulation, 21(2), 191-198.
This study was designed to evaluate the long-term effects
of paced diaphragmatic breathing on subjects who reported
functional cardiac symptoms and who also demonstrated
associated signs of hyperventilation syndrome. This
was a follow-up to a study done three years previously
that evaluated the short-term effects of breathing retraining
on functional cardiac symptoms and respiratory parameters.
Ten out of the original 41 subjects participated in
this follow-up study. The results indicated that breathing
retraining had lasting effects on both respiratory parameters
measured (respiratory rate and end-tidal carbon dioxide)
and subjects also continued to report a decrease in
the frequency of functional cardiac symptoms.
2. Fried. R. (1990). The Breath Connection. New York:
Plenum Press, 58-71,91-93, 171-179, 182-184.
The first excerpt discusses respiration, the physiology
of the lungs and airway passages, and the composition
of air in the atmosphere and in the lungs. The process
of breathing in the context of breath volume, mode and
rhythm is presented for both normal and abnormal breathing.
The last three excerpts contain information on the hyperventilation
syndrome including the effect of low blood CO2 on arteries,
hemoglobin, muscles and nerves, and on the nervous system.
The author also addresses anxiety, psychological problems,
and medication, and their relation to hyperventilation.
3. Wood, C. (1993). Mood Change and Perceptions of
Vitality: A Comparison of the Effects of Relaxation,
Visualization, and Yoga. Journal of the Royal Society
of Medicine, 86, 254-258.
This study evaluated the effects of three different
procedures: relaxation, visualization, and yogic breathing
and stretch (pranayama) on perceptions of physical and
mental energy and on positive and negative mood states
were assessed in a group of normal volunteers. Each
group of subjects participated in six sessions, two
of each technique, over a two week period. Mood and
physical energy level was assessed before and after
each session. The results showed that pranayama produced
a marked increase in energy and mood. It was significantly
better than either relaxation or imagery by these measures.