Mind Body Medicine
Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
XII Autogenic Training and Biofeedback

1. Fuller G.D. (1977). Skin Temperature Feedback. Excerpt from Biofeedback: Methods and Procedures in Clinical Practice. San Francisco, CA: Biofeedback Press, 46-52.
This excerpt contains information on the history and physiology of skin temperature biofeedback. It also discusses how skin temperature is measured and how the technique may be used. A brief description of the procedure is presented.

2. Linden, W. (1994). Autogenic Training: A Narrative and Quantitative Review of Clinical Outcome. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 19(3),227-264.
This review contains a narrative summary and a quantatitive (meta-analysis) of literature on autogenic training. It includes English and German studies. It covers the use of autogenic training for headaches, insomnia, test anxiety, angina pectoris, asthma, childbirth, eczema, hypertension, infertility, Ra~aud ' s disease, and recovery form myocardial infarction. Biological measures as well as psychological and behavioral measures are evaluated in the meta-analysis.

3. Norris, P .A. & Fahrion, S.L. (1993). Autogenic Biofeedback in Psychophysiological Therapy and Stress Management. In P .M. Lehrer & R.L. Woolfolk (Eds. ), Principles and Practices ofStress Management. New York: The Guilford Press, 231-262.
This chapter on autogenic biofeedback presents a history of the method and a review of the literature concerning the scope of its application for a variety of illnesses and disorders. The mechanisms of action are also discussed. The chapter contains information on the clinical indications in addition to limitations and contraindications for autogenic biofeedback. Aspects of incorporating this technique into a clinical practice are set forth including how to introduce the method to a client, the physical environment and equipment, the therapist-client relationship, and a detailed description of the method. The chapter closes with a case example to illustrate several aspects of the technique and effect of autogenic biofeedback therapy.

4. Rickles, W.H., Onoda, L., & Doyle, C.C. (1982). Biofeedback as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 7(1), 1-33.
This article contains a literature review on biofeedback as an adjunct to psychotherapy in the treatment of psychosomatic and physical disorders including hypertension, asthma, and low back pain. It also reviews the literature on biofeedback as an adjunct to the psychotherapy of psychological disorders including anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, psychosocial and neurotic disorders, insomnia, alcoholism and drug abuse, and phobias. The authors discuss advantages and contraindications for combining biofeedback and behavioral psychotherapy. They also make recommendations for future studies.

5. Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review. [Review] [29 refs]
Authors Huntley A. White AR. Ernst E.
Institution Department of Complementary Medicine, School of Sport and Health Studies, University of Exeter, Exeter EX2 4NT, UK. A.Huntley@ex.ac.uk Source Thorax. 57(2):127-31, 2002 Feb.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Emotional stress can either precipitate or exacerbate both acute and chronic asthma. There is a large body of literature available on the use of relaxation techniques for the treatment of asthma symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if there is any evidence for or against the clinical efficacy of such interventions. METHODS: Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data from trials that statistically compared the treatment group with that of the control were extracted in a standardised predefined manner and assessed critically by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: Fifteen trials were identified, of which nine compared the treatment group with the control group appropriately. Five RCTs tested progressive muscle relaxation or mental and muscular relaxation, two of which showed significant effects of therapy. One RCT investigating hypnotherapy, one of autogenic training, and two of biofeedback techniques revealed no therapeutic effects. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of relaxation therapies in the management of asthma. This deficiency is due to the poor methodology of the studies as well as the inherent problems of conducting such trials. There is some evidence that muscular relaxation improves lung function of patients with asthma but no evidence for any other relaxation technique. [References: 29]